Castigos y refuerzos en adiestramiento canino

En este artículo vamos a aprender como aplicar castigos y refuerzos en adiestramiento canino

La importancia del vínculo entre el tutor y su perro es fundamental, para ello hay dos aspectos que son fundamentales crear y solidificar: el aspecto afectivo y el código de comunicación. En este sentido debemos tener muy claro cómo y cuándo hay que utilizar (en el supuesto de tener que hacerlo) el tema de los castigos.

Para ello os ofrecemos este artículo en el que vamos a dividir los castigos y los refuerzos en dos grupos cada uno.

Refuerzo positivo:

Este aspecto es el que se suele utilizar habitualmente en adiestramiento en positivo ya que se basa en fortalecer conductas adecuadas en el perro cuando las desarrolla por voluntad o influenciada por nosotros. Por ejemplo, el perro se sienta y le premiamos. En este sentido, no debemos quedarnos en el objeto de interés egoísta del perro sino tender también (como herramienta al elogio).

Refuerzo negativo:

Cuando el perro tiene una conducta que queremos corregir, podemos tender a ignorarla y no dar ningún premio (lo has hecho mal, por tanto, no hay premio). En el caso del ejemplo anterior, si le hemos pedido que se siente y no lo hace, se queda sin el premio. Podemos ayudarnos con un «no informativo»

Castigo negativo:

Cuando el perro intenta conseguir algo mediante una conducta no adecuada, la conducta es ignorada por el tutor. Un ejemplo claro sería el momento de llegar a casa y el perro nos saluda en un estado de mucha excitabilidad. En tal caso, ignoramos la conducta hasta que se calma y se sienta, entonces premiamos y elogiamos.

Castigo positivo

En ocasiones, el uso de aversivos, es necesario para corregir conductas o comportamientos no deseados. Casi cualquier elemento que incluyamos en el adiestramiento tendrá, en principio, un componente aversivo para el perro pero que será necesario si queremos modelar en la dirección de unos objetivos determinados. Un ejemplo puede ser el trabajo con la correa, la tensamos en un momento determinado para destensar cuando el perro modifica el comportamiento inadecuado.

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